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This page was last edited on 19 November 2020, at 20:07. In the 17th and 18th centuries, English, Dutch, and Portuguese traders became established there, and Basra developed considerably during the 19th century as a transshipment point for river traffic to Baghdad. We have no cultivation or stock farming to provide us with our livelihood or food, which comes to us as through the throat of an ostrich. In Wells’s future history, however, religious beliefs have been suppressed and, in an inversion of history, Basra is made the center state of an atheist world purged of Islam and all other major religions. Wells’ The Shape of Things to Come (1933), he describes the Second Conference at Basra, a similar scene where world leaders come to meet and discuss important matters. Ali first installed Uthman ibn Hanif as Basra's governor, who was followed by ʿAbdullah ibn ʿAbbas. The huge river connects the city with the Gulf and gives it a coastal feel, despite being 25 miles from the sea. History of Basra NPR's Lynn Neary profiles Basra, the scene of what the U.S. military says was a major battle today. 25 January: Bombing by United States forces. In 680, Yazid I ordered ʿUbaydullah to keep order in Kufa as a reaction to Hussein ibn Ali's popularity as the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. Basra is a major Shia city, with the old Akhbari Shiism progressively being overwhelmed by the Usuli Shiism. "Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr and the Mahdi" in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies 40. ©2020 Encyclopædia Iranica Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The tournament was shifted to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, after concerns over preparations and security. The commercial activities that focused on Basra (and its predecessor, Obolla) had drawn from various points around the Indian Ocean basin (Indians, Malays, and Blacks), and there was also a sizable Iranian component in the population. In 680, Yazid I ordered ʿUbaydullah to keep order in Kufa as a reaction to Hussein ibn Ali's popularity as the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. In 871, the Zanj sacked Basra. 1915 - April: Turkish forces attempt to take city. and tr. High humidity – sometimes exceeding 90% – is common due to the proximity to the marshy Persian Gulf. "[15] Ibn Battuta also noted that Basra consisted of three-quarters: the Hudayl quarter, the Banu Haram quarter, and the Iranian quarter (mahallat al-Ajam). In Arabic, the word baṣrah means "the overwatcher," which may have been an allusion to the city's origin as an Arab military base against the Sassanids. Rābiʻa died in her 80s in Basra in 185 AH/801 CE, where her tomb was shown [clarification needed] outside the city. The city was repeatedly shelled by Iran and was the site of many fierce battles, such as Operation Ramadan and Operation Karbala 5. [19] This changed a decade later; in 1546, following a tribal struggle involving the Moshasha and the local ruler of Zakiya (near Basra), the Ottomans sent a force to Basra. They now number around 200,000 in Iraq. While Baghdad developed the busy urban character typical of capital cities, Basra retained more of a romantic quality and is often called the most beautiful part of. In April 2017, the Iraqi Parliament recognized Basra as Iraq's economic capital. To keep things in perspective, however, it should perhaps be noted here that Basra’s early history was less turbulent than that of Kūfa, which had a tribal population of even greater diversity. Why Basra was chosen as a site for the new city remains unclear. [17] Twelve years later, in 1536, during the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1532-1555, the Bedouin ruler of Basra, Rashid ibn Mughamis, acknowledged Suleiman the Magnificent as his suzerain who in turn confirmed him as governor of Basra. 1604 - Population: 50,000 (approximate); number of houses: 10,000 (approximate). The city again suffered extensive damage in 1991 during the Persian Gulf War and in subsequent fighting between rebel factions and government troops. One is Ḥasan b. Yazīd Sīrāfī’s Aḵbār al-Ṣīn wa’l-Hend,ed. [35] This was taken as sign that he was serious in opposing the militias. Ebn Baṭṭūṭa, who visited the town in the 8th/14th century, described it as consisting of three quarters—the Hoḏayl quarter, the Banū Ḥarām quarter, and the Iranian quarter (maḥallat al-ʿAjam; Ebn Baṭṭūṭa, Reḥla, p. 186; Ebn al-Aṯīr, Lobāb,s.v. The city of Basra has a major role in H. G. Wells 's 1933 future history " The Shape of Things to … These investments were made with the expectation of a profitable return, indicating the value of the Basra food market. [34] Talking to the BBC, he said that his determination to tackle the militia had led to almost daily assassination attempts. Why Basra was chosen as a site for the new city remains unclear. The tribes of ʿAbd-al-Qays and Azd, from eastern Arabia and ʿOmān respectively, begin to show up in Basra a bit after its initial foundation and seem to have increased in importance some decades later, probably due to con­tinuing immigration. and annotated by W. F. Sinclair, London, 1902; Les six voyages de Jean-Baptiste Tavernieṛ . [38], Basra was scheduled to host the 22nd Arabian Gulf Cup tournament in Basra Sports City, a newly built multi-use sports complex. ʿUbaydullah took over the control of Kufa. Routledge. Political groups centered in Basra were reported to have close links with political parties already in power in the Iraqi government, despite opposition from Iraqi Sunnis and the more secular Kurds. … After the two soldiers were arrested, the British Army raided the jail they were being held in to rescue them, killing several people from among their nominal allies – the Iraqi security forces. The Sunni population is tiny and dropping in their percentage as more Iraqi Shias move into Basra for various job or welfare opportunities. A detailed examination of the rebellion of the Zanj, with a thorough bibliography of relevant sources, is Alex­andre Popovic, La révolte des esclaves en Iraq au IIIe/IXe siècle,Paris, 1976. In 1524, following Ismail I's death, the local ruling dynasty of Basra, the Al-Mughamis, resumed effective control over the city. Hist. The Shatt-Al-Arab and Basra waterways define the eastern and western borders of Basra, respectively. This required the clearing of salty topsoil by the Zanj slaves in order to keep the fields from becoming too saline to grow crops. Humam Abd al-Khaliq Abd al-Ghafur was Iraqi Information Minister between 1997 and 2001. Basra is situated on the western bank of the Shaṭṭ Al-ʿArab (the waterway formed by the union of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) at its exit from Lake Al-Ḥammār, 70 miles (110 km) by water above Al-Fāw (Fao) on the Persian Gulf. By 1977, the population had risen to a peak population of some 1.5 million. For a time the town came under the control of the Barīdīs, a family of local origin that reigned in Ḵūzestān and southern Iraq in the mid-tenth century, first as governors for the powerless late ʿAbbasids and then as independent princes, until they were expelled in 336/947 by the first Buyids. It is located on al-Basra Street. One of the largest communities of pre-Islamic Mandaeans live in the city, whose headquarters was in the area formerly called Suk esh-Sheikh. [8] Abu Musa led the conquest of Khuzestan from 639 to 642 and was ordered by Umar to aid Uthman ibn Abi al-As, then fighting Iran from a new, more easterly miṣr at Tawwaj. Ali first installed Uthman ibn Hanif as Basra's governor, who was followed by ʿAbdullah ibn ʿAbbas. In Voltaire’s Zadig (1747), the protagonist visits Basra and meets with travelers and religious leaders from around the world; “It was no little consolation […] to see so many men of different countries assembled in the same place.

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