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Various theories have been suggested about how decisions are made. Entrepreneurial approach warrants constant search for opportunities that changing environment makes available. A majority stakeholder can have a greater influence on decisions about reinvestment than if stock is widely held by many small owners. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Rational-Analytical Approach 2. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. and learns from a series of partial (incremental) commitments rather than Kepner-Tregoe, a Princeton-based consulting firm, estimates that American company use rational decision- making techniques less than 20 percent of the time. (b) It does not effectively use all the tools available to modern decision makers. It is a systems approach in that the structure of organisation and its parts are geared to make possible the payoffs in terms of costs and benefits. Strategy making is based on analysis of various factors which affect the strategy. Optimizing means choosing the best possible alternative. Therefore, decisions are made in a typically human way, using the rational, conscious analysis and intuitive, unconscious ‘gut feeling’ in light of political realities. The second stage deals with providing directions through the choice of alternatives strategies to be adopted. As a leader in a Silicon Valley corporation, I was tasked to build a team that would be able to standardize our I.T. Unions exchange labour for decent wages and job security. It is in this business that he, in the early sixties, realised the importance of synthetic fabrics. Additionally, managers must think about what the competition is doing. Henry Mintzberg has given three most typical approaches of strategic decision making which include: 3. 1. A competitive advantage increases when the internal and external factors are combined so that the core competence underpins the chosen market positioning. Business leaders use strategic decision-making when they plan the company's future. Since it is formal and structured, strategic problems are dealt with by a designated group of planners who follow a set procedure to arrive at decisions. It is evident that above three approaches are having contrasting ways for strategic decision making. Seeking the possible and viable opportunities and encashing them, i.e., it is not a problem solving process. Strategic Planning for Middle-Level Management. Different types of planning system such as strategic planning, corporate planning or long-range planning are used. This position will be explained in more detail during this essay. This approach has been dealt with by authors like H. Igor Ansoff and Russell L. Ackoff. It is not mandatory to follow a particular approach. 5.Tesla as an example for strategic decision making. The biggest part of strategic decision making is the company's mission. Specific information B. Of course, all managers but most especially inexperienced, should be careful not to rely too heavily on intuition. Various features of strategic decision making under adaptive approach are as follows: i. courses that prepare you to earn Similarly, Suraj Automobiles introduced diesel- based motor cycles to provide saving in fuel cost but the product failed. Incremental Approach 9. Government provides security and protection and in turn expects payment of taxes regularly. Content Guidelines 2. Is the competition getting mean and making negative comments about the manager's company? He anticipates the future and takes strategic decisions accordingly. Analysis of Factors Influencing a Strategy: The process of strategy making is founded on analysis of various factors that influence the strategy. Thus, there could be many different approaches to strategic decision-making. However, this process can be conducted by adopting different approaches. Entrepreneurial-opportunistic (or simply entrepreneurial) approach is adopted, generally, by heads of family-managed organizations and is characterized by pushing an organization ahead in the face of environmental odds. That is, all the decisions and strategies that are inter-departmental and inter level of the organisation are supporting one another rather than supplanting. 10 Kathleen M. Eisenhardt, J. Introduction. Planning Approach 6. These factors are both external and internal. Following is the brief description of these three approaches as given by Mr. Henry Mintzberg: As the caption suggests, this approach is followed in strategic decision-making by the organisations headed by family heads where by the organisation is moulded to- face the environmental changes. Degree of formalization in decision-making process—from highly formalized and structured to informal and unstructured process. For the dog food example, the manager needed to think of what would happen to the company if they switched to fresher foods that need to be eaten within a week. Each shareholder gives the organisation something and expects something in return. Many managers try to align strategic decisions with the company's overall vision -- where it would like to be and how it would like to get there. This approach suggests that real decision makers must consider a variety of pressures from other people who are affected by their decisions. on instrumentation and computer hardware. For instance, Shell is good in adapting to local circumstances and having the right strategy in the respective country, whereas BP has competence in finding big oil fields. In many cases, judgment might be preferable to relying on the analysis. Some who prescribe intuition of judgement as the preferred approach point out that in many cases, judgment may lead to “better” decisions than “optimizing” techniques. In fact, the timing of when to implement a decision based on the analysis may require an intuitive feel for what the dates are telling you. The rational approval to decision-making includes the following steps: (ii) Establish, rank and weight criteria; (iii) Gather available information and data; (v) Evaluate each alternative with respect to all the criteria; and. They are:- 1. (b) They can effectively eliminate uncertainty to achieve a decision condition of certainty. Intuitive decision makers consider a number of alternatives and options, simultaneously jumping from one step in analysis or search to another and back again. They make decisions with more than a maximization of objectives but tend to “satisfice” i.e. The changes are typically large in scope, such as introducing a new manufacturing process.

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