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Noteworthy from the study by el Ghissassi et al. The microbes remain in the soil after use, but the researchers believe they pose no threat to human health. These adducts occur at sites that disrupt normal pairing with complementary bases. to the skin and bones of the hand. Vinyl chloride also can irritate the eyes, mucous membranes, It also means they do not move to other parts of the aquifer. can cause frostbite or irritation of the skin and eyes. disturbances, coma, and death. VC required highly reducing conditions to be degraded anaerobically. Once the contaminant is gone, the organisms have no food and their population size decreases.”. Remarkably, serum transaminase levels were normal in most cases. (1998) was the demonstration that this compound which has an extremely low boiling point/vapor pressure serves as a substrate for microsomal cytochrome P450 and exhibits a low Michaelis constant for the enzyme-mediated reaction. The biological effects of vinyl chloride depend on metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 to form the highly reactive metabolite chloroethylene oxide, which rearranges nonenzymatically to chloroacetaldehyde (Bartsch et al. VC production was recently estimated at 27 million metric tons annually, valued at U.S. $19 billion. intermediates with macromolecules. (4) • The vapor pressure for vinyl chloride is 2,600 mm Hg at 25 °C, and it has a log The relative proportions observed in vivo may be due to differences in the repair of the etheno adducts. Vinyl chloride OSHA Specifically Regulated Substances: OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1017 (vinyl chloride); The U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration specifi-cally regulates manufacturing, handling and processing of vinyl resin. This causes pyrolysis (thermal cracking) o… Keith G. Tolman, Anthony S. Dalpiaz, in Drug-Induced Liver Disease (Third Edition), 2013. Vinyl chloride (VC, CAS No. These clinics specialize in the CNS. Microbiologist Frank Loeffler said, “Bacteria like Bav1 eat contaminants. However, the recognition of VC-related hemangiosarcoma is perhaps the most important sentinel event in occupational hepatology. Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C=CHCl that is also called vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) or chloroethene. 2007). Etheno adducts are not detected in vivo when 2,2′-dichlorodiethyl ether, which yields chloroacetaldehyde, is administered to rats (Gwinner et al. Studies by Yang, Yoo, Ishizaki, and Hong (1990) have provided support that the human CYP2E1 also catalyzes this epoxidation reaction and accounts for the bioactivation of this human carcinogen. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543009611, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781437708813000279, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128015643000067, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124157668000094, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123878175000364, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978145574066600007X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054358915000356, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080468846014056, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702066979000121, Systems Biology in Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2015, Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Occupational and Environmental Hepatotoxicity, Zakim and Boyer's Hepatology (Sixth Edition), Systems Biology in Toxicology and Environmental Health, Theodore H. Tulchinsky MD, MPH, Elena A. Varavikova MD, MPH, PhD, in, Drug-Induced Liver Disease (Third Edition), The Molecular Basis of Cancer (Fourth Edition), Cytochrome P450 Function and Pharmacological Roles in Inflammation and Cancer, Creech & Johnson, 1974; Falk, Creech, Heath, Johnson, & Key, 1974; Makk, Creech, Whelan, & Johnson, 1974, Wong et al., 2002; Wong, Wang, Hsieh, & Cheng, 2003, Macsween's Pathology of the Liver (Seventh Edition), Comprehensive Toxicology (Second Edition), Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. The California Air Resources Board is one of six boards, departments, and offices under the umbrella of the California Environmental Protection Agency . While most vinyl chloride evaporates into the atmosphere upon emission into the environment, groundwater surrounding industrial operations, landfills, and other hazardous waste sites has been reported to contain vinyl chloride [109]. of vapor. Place of registration: England and Wales It is an important component of the chemical industry because of its flame-retardant properties, low cost, and many end-product uses. In the presence of oxygen and NADPH, CYP450 2E1 catalyzes formation of a highly unstable epoxide moiety across the central carbon double bond. Anaerobic:  Good to Poor –  VC can be anaerobically degraded if the appropriate biological communities are present or if added (bioagumented). Therefore, VC is often found as a “stalled” byproduct when tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and/or trichloroethylene (TCE) are anaerobically reduced. The level of the standard, 0.010 ppm as a 24 hour average was chosen because it was the lowest level that could be reliably measured at the time the standard was promulgated, and could thus function as an enforceable exposure limit. United States Patent 3956249 . The ambient air quality standard for vinyl chloride is unique among the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) in that it addressed a localized exposure risk, rather than a statewide risk.

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