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Here is an article entitled An IP Subnet-the Building Blocks of Network Design that shows you how important IP subnets are. Once you choose the designated router, this remains the router designated until failure occurs. It uses a link-state routing protocol, which means that the routers exchange topology information with their nearest neighbors. OSPF is a protocol of routing allowing packets of date to follow and select the network’s most suitable and shortest data path. There is not just one type of LSA either. You do need some knowledge of TCP-IP, router and network principles to configure OSPF protocol, however. If there is a tie in router priority then highest router I’d will be considered. It doesn’t send any LSA either. Prerequisite – OSPF fundamentals Generally you can assume that in practice, OSPF calculates the best path to take by count of hop, assuming there are equal speeds of the interface. In this new topology, we are playing around with the wildcard mask. Compared to other protocols of routings, there are major reasons to select OSPF. But as we get further into OSPF and start discussing DR/BDR routers in a broadcast environment, the DR uses 224.0.0.5 and the BDR uses 224.0.0.6. A network that uses OPF always contain a minimum of a single area but if over a single area exists, then one needs to be an area called the ‘backbone.’ The hierarchy of OSPF just has  two levels, the backbones plus the other attached areas to this. For instance, a 100Mbps link might have a cost of 1 and a 10Mbps might have a cost of 10. In operations, there are many OSPF Timers including: -Link Database Updates occur when there are changes in the OSPF table of routes, or it has been half an hour since the previous changes, whichever first occurs. This book covers the understanding of networking using routers and switches, layer 2 technology and its various configurations and connections, VLANS and inter-VLAN routing and more. OSPF is actually a linking state route protocol used for allowing routers to learn routes dynamically from other router types and for advertising the route it finds to other router types as well. Computer Network | Password authentication protocol (PAP), Computer Network | Denial of Service DDoS attack, Computer Network | RC4 Encryption Algorithm, RSA Algorithm using Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library, Weak RSA decryption with Chinese-remainder theorem, Computer Network | RC5 Encryption Algorithm, Computer Network | Cryptography Introduction, Cryptography | Traditional Symmetric Ciphers, Computer Network | Block cipher modes of operation, Cryptography | Development of Cryptography, Transforming a Plain Text message to Cipher Text, Cryptography | Introduction to Crypto-terminologies, Computer Network | Data encryption standard (DES) | Set 1, End to End Encryption (E2EE) in Computer Networks, Types of Security attacks | Active and Passive attacks, Types of Wireless and Mobile Device Attacks, LZW (Lempel–Ziv–Welch) Compression technique, Shannon-Fano Algorithm for Data Compression, C Program to find IP Address, Subnet Mask & Default Gateway, Computer Network | Introduction to variable length subnet mask (VLSM), Computer Network | Open shortest path first (OSPF) – Set 2 TCP Server-Client implementation in C For one, there is ease of configuration and availability in a wide range of routers Before we begin with LSA flooding and how it uses LSUs to create the OSPF routing table, let’s elaborate on this term. For example, if you were to configure it on EIGRP, it will not send or receive updates. DR and BDR election – DR and BDR election takes place in broadcast network or multi access network. Almost immediately, it took the F1/0 interface down. Photoshop vs Illustrator: Which Work Best for You? All links (called ‘router interfaces’) have costs. One thing to keep in mind is that if you are using Ethernet, as we are, the hello packet timer is set to 10 seconds. Areas of OSPF are used for imposing a structure of hierarchy to the data flow over each of the networks. Program to remotely Power On a PC over the internet using the Wake-on-LAN protocol. You can see in the first configuration that when we create the network statement, we use all zeros, 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0, and then we put in the area number. Computer Network | ARP, Reverse ARP(RARP), Inverse ARP(InARP), Proxy ARP and Gratuitous ARP, Computer Network | Packet flow in the same network, Computer Network | Packet flow in different network, Computer Network | Wifi protected access (WPA), Computer Network | Wifi protected setup (WPS), Computer Network | Service Set Identifier (SSID), Computer Network | Context based access control (CBAC), Computer Network | Time based access-list, Computer Network | AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting), Computer Network | AAA (authentication) configuration (locally), Challenge Response Authentication Mechanism (CRAM), Computer Network | Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), Computer Network | TCP Connection Establishment, Computer Network | TCP 3-Way Handshake Process, Computer Network | TCP Connection Termination, TCP Sequence Number | Wrap Around Concept, Computer Network | Transport Layer responsibilities, Computer Network | Multiplexing and Demultiplexing in Transport Layer, Computer Network | User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Computer Network | TCP Congestion Control, Computer Networks | Congestion control techniques, Computer Network | Leaky bucket algorithm, Computer Network | Address Resolution in DNS, Computer Network | DNS Spoofing or DNS Cache poisoning, Types of DNS Attacks and Tactics for Security. This calculation can be manipulated by putting fixed costs to an interface in particular. December 3rd, 2010 Go to comments. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol which is used to find the best path between the source and the destination router using its own Shortest Path First). Backbone Router- In Area 0 Backbone Routers have more than one interface. We are only learning about the 3.3.3.3 network, which is the loopback address on R3. A standards network of OSPF looks a bit like a large bubble, this is the area called the backbone. So, how would you configure something like that? Router having the highest router priority will be declared as DR. Remember that this isn’t transport speed, however, but rather, interface speed. Computer Network | Birthday attack Ideal routes are selected by OSPF through locating destination paths with the least cost. This work is licensed under Creative Common Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Using all zeros means matching all interfaces, so any IP address that exists on the router will be matched by OSPF, placed in area 0, and advertised to the neighbor routers. Let’s debug again: Once again, we are sending and receiving hellos from R1, so let’s ping the loopback on R1, but also look at the routing table: Once more, we have connectivity, so with the passive-interface be very careful how you are going to use it and which protocol you are going to use it with. Basically, the concept of routing at link state is that every node connects to other nodes. This tutorial explains how to configure OSPF Routing protocol step by step with practical example in packet tracer. It is only to the area of the backbone that a stub is connected to.

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